Why am I telling you all of this? The answer is pretty simple. I want you to get the understanding that making money online (at least in the initial stages), takes A LOT of STUDY and WORK! That's the unknown secret of Internet Marketing Gurus. Anyone can make a few hundred dollars. To be quite honest, you can make a few hundred dollars in your FIRST MONTH as a Freebie Trader. To be even MORE honest, it's much harder to profit $2,000+ each and every month, which is the reason I built this blog, and so many other people have their blogs on Internet Marketing – To save you the struggles that we had in getting going.
When you visit a website and there’s a product being offered there, it’s more often than not an affiliate product being marketed to you.  How affiliate marketing works is Big Brand A approaches a website or the blogger/website owner may go through sites like CJ.com to sell a specific product.  That product is then offered on a website for sale with the compensation for doing so varying between brands.
Frank Kern is a successful internet marketer from the US and is considered by many to be one of the top “guru’s” in the internet marketing space today. His trademark blonde “surfer-style” haircut (cut short in September 2012) and laid back style combined with his business acumen have garnered him a huge and loyal fanbase. His info products typically sell for $1997, a figure that has become almost a standard ticket price for top internet marketing product launches.
I came across this site for affiliate marketing that is very popular I’m sure some of you have heard of if. It seems easy enough, they even have some free materials and have online courses to help get you started. I think the starting price is like 37 bucks which isn’t too bad if it leads to me getting some free time back. Here’s the link if you wanna check it out. [link removed]
Frank Kern is a successful internet marketer from the US and is considered by many to be one of the top “guru’s” in the internet marketing space today. His trademark blonde “surfer-style” haircut (cut short in September 2012) and laid back style combined with his business acumen have garnered him a huge and loyal fanbase. His info products typically sell for $1997, a figure that has become almost a standard ticket price for top internet marketing product launches.

I get spoiled by my fin-dom submissives and can be so lazy sometimes. But why not? These guys make it easy to not work very hard. One of them randomly sends me $500 or $600 and I never actually hear from him. That’s his thing. He doesn’t even need direct contact from me. I blog or tweet about receiving his money, and the recognition excites him. I post, “Next time, pig, send me more.” That turns him on. In fact, the more I brag and the more I show off money, the more excited people get. It just keeps working in my favor.


No matter if you start a blog, do freelancing or small separate gigs, social media always plays a crucial role. If you are freelancer you can use it to brand yourself or your blog and if you are making the extra bucks through small tasks and apps, most of them offer incentives if you share them with your friends. There’s another upside- if you manage to grow and develop your social network, you can even begin to get paid from companies to advertise their business on your personal profiles.

There are numerous printing companies that will print your designs onto not just T-shirts, but also hoodies, hats, posters, cushions, bags, and phone cases, to name a few items. These businesses also offer fulfillment services. This means that you promote the merchandise on your own site and once you sell a product the printing company will not only print your design but also send the item directly to the buyer. So all you have to do is concentrate on the marketing and selling of your products, and the fulfillment company will take care of the rest.
Do a bit of research and due diligence. How much are people renting out their homes in your area on sites like AirBnB? What’s the going rate and just how do those homes compare to your own home? There are a lot of issues to cover if you’re thinking about doing this, so don’t expect to profit simply from it. The more care and attention you put to the finer details here, the better it will be.

If you are a budding photographer and would like to be paid for your craft then you should consider setting up your own photography website. This is a great way to not only promote your services as a photographer, but also to sell your images. You can charge visitors a fee to download your images. Or, if you’d rather, turn your site into a paid membership site, with free downloads of all images for paying subscribers.
Excellent post, Jon. I agree with every word. In the 90s I ran a successful print ad agency out of my house. Made six figures a year for about a decade. Now I’m a regular working stiff who’s getting his toes wet online. No monetizing, but I’m building a framework for an online business that will hopefully take me into retirement! Thanks for the great advice. I’m passing this post on, believe me!
Really successful businesses are built around one thing: a compelling and converting offer. The offer is usually a sales page that converts visitors into buyers. This may be a video sales letter (those annoying point by point “can’t be paused” sales presentations that everyone uses… including me… because they work), long form textual sales letters (long web pages with a red headline and a buy button at the end), or a squeeze page (“free reports” in exchange for an email address).
I keep a high energy, positive vibe when talking about making money online. If you work INTELLIGENTLY, it becomes quite easy. It is really easy, actually, but so few people act intelligently, it’s scary. Take my comments. If I write a really in-depth, value-packed comment on this blog, and on Problogger, my SEO juice goes through the roof, my blog reaches page 1 or 2 of google for a very competitive keyword, and I get 500 to 1000 hungry eyeballs on my blog, an any given day. Not bad for 5 to 10 minutes of offering my opinion, right? So for me, it’s easy to drive tons of targeted traffic to my blog, and make money. But if you scroll the comments section, most people do not act intelligently. No impactful comments. No click throughs. No backlink juice. Poor search engine rank.
Before we go any further, let’s talk about the difference between active income and passive income. This distinction will be paramount to your ability to produce serious capital on the web. So what is passive income? Passive income, if you don’t already know, is income that’s earned automatically. It doesn’t require much maintenance once that income stream has been created. However, it does require an enormous amount of effort at the outset to establish that stream of income.
Uneven distribution of engagement: As we already mentioned, uncertainty doesn’t only reflect on your salary but also stress level. In a period of time there may be many chances to earn extra cash and they can occur at the same time. Take online surveys for example. One week you may get screened for 1-2 surveys and then suddenly get 10 in one day and end up filling them out all day, while trying to comply with your other obligations.
Great article. When I decided to go into online marketing I went into it with open eyes. I had great expectations and dollar signs in my eyes. I was going to be a millionaire in two years. Then reality set in. But I love this business and I’ll keep plugging away. I may never get “rich” but I love what I’m doing and always learning something new and that to me is what rich is all about.

If you are still doubting the legitimacy or think making a living online is  a shady deal, take a look at our guide. We have listed all the ups and downsides of making money online, in order to give you a realistic overview of how things work. If you are interested in earning an income online, you can see how to start and which are the best tools to get you that extra cash.


The most underrated thing and the BEST part to me is; that hard earned traffic is given to you for FREE, people already know about Amazon, but people don't know about your website/blog/etc. There's easier ways to get more exposure with your product. You can rank your product on page 1 pretty easy and doing so will make your product viewed by hundreds of thousands of purchase ready customers. I started with little experience and I'm pulling it off, I'm sure you can do this too. If your interested I can show you how to start an Amazon business, and what I personally do to grow it. https://youtu.be/YVmbeyGObAk 

Whether you're looking to make some fast cash, or you're after long-term, more sustainable income-producing results, there are certainly ways you can make money online today. The truth is that making money online isn't as difficult as most make it out to seem. It does require some discipline. Sure. Without discipline, you'll find it tough to make a buck both online or offline. 
Video is growing like crazy. And more and more people are looking for professional help cutting their raw footage into viral-worthy content. If you have the right software and a bit of skill, you can easily make money online as a video editor. Check out these article of Fstoppers on how to become an online video editor and then look for relevant jobs on Mandy.com, Creative Cow Job Search, or ProductionHub.

There are quite literally hundreds of clever ways to make money online. From taking online surveys, to renting or selling your old clothes, flipping your iPhone to someone in a different country, and even buying low-cost products locally, just to resell them for a higher price on Amazon. There’s truly no shortage of unique ways to make money online.

By now, you've likely seen all the "gurus" in your Facebook feed. Some of them are more popular than others. What you'll notice is that the ads you see that have the highest views and engagement are normally the most successful. Use a site like Similar Web to study those ads and see what they're doing. Join their lists and embed yourself in their funnels. That's an important part of the process so that you can replicate and reverse engineer what the most successful marketers are doing.
If you've developed valuable skill sets or picked up certifications within your industry over the years, offering your consulting services to local business owners can be a lucrative way to make money online. Whether you're an expert marketer, business strategist, or manufacturing aficionado, there's likely a local business owner who's willing to pay you to help them solve an issue with their company. Start with this 18-step checklist to becoming a local business consultant from Karyn Greenstreet and then use my guide to crafting an effective cold email to convince them to hire you.
If you’re like every other red-blooded human being, you dream of a life of leisure and pleasure, one steeped in wealth and financial means rather than replete with stress, bills and a near-endless fear of impending fiscal collapse. However, attaining what we’ve coined as financial freedom is no small feat. Many have tried, but only few have succeeded in this endeavor.
Best article I’ve read in a long time. I’m be traveling to Kiev on Monday so I’ll miss your webinar – but I’m sharing this with lots of folks who should listen in. Your point on technology is SO important. We learned way more than I ever thought we would on front-end, back-end and everything in between. There are so many people out there willing to build you a website – it’s important to know what you’re getting and what you own and that it’s original work. It’s amazing how many people don’t know how important these issues are. Thanks Jon for the inspiration this morning.
Hey everyone I'm John and I am the owner of this site. I have fallen for many scams, played the recruiting game, and have lost thousands of dollars before finding a program that actually works. With this site, I hope to save you time and money as there are too many gurus that care about nothing else but filling their pockets with your hard earned money.

No matter what method you end up using to generate an income on the web, you need to adjust your mindset to help empower you rather than discourage you. The truth? Making money online can be fraught with avoidable pitfalls. There's no shortage to the rah-rah cheers of internet marketers looking to find ways to ensure they part you from your hard-earned cash. The trick? Cancel the noise and get to the real meat and potatoes, so to speak.


Can someone help. I need a job or at least a hobbie to do at home, i need to make $400 in about 2 weeks. I’m 15 so i can’t work yet. If anyone has any suggestions please e-mail me! ooh & btw i can’t mow any lawns cause everyone who lives close by dosn’t have any lawn at all. So if there is any suggestions whatsoever please feel free to e-mail me. thanks!
Aaron N. Fletcher is an online marketing consultant, educator, speaker and nationally published author of the new book Stand Out: A Simple and Effective Online Marketing Plan For Your Small Business. Over the last 18 years, Aaron has become the “go-to” sales and marketing expert to small business owners, start-ups and entrepreneurs including Nolo.com, Caring.com, and Jay Abraham.
And that use of the word "sale" is interesting. It's fascinating that some of the women I interviewed said they knew men and women who are using MyGirlFund as their primary social network these days, in spite of its transactional nature. And when I ask them about positive and negative experiences, they sound much like any other social network — most people are pleasant, but some people aren't, so you block them.
Hey [NAME], love what you’re doing on [Insert Platform]. My name is [Your Name] and I’m the head of SEO at [Your Agency]. I noticed that you have a large following on [Platform], but I wanted to give you a heads up that you’re missing out on approximately [INSERT TRAFFIC ESTIMATE] website visitors every month. Can I send you a quick video showing you how you can capture this traffic you’re missing out on?

If you have a fondness and talent for taking pictures you can make extra money online by becoming a stock photographer and selling your images to a stock photo company like ShutterStock or iStockPhoto. You’ll get royalties every time someone licenses an image you’ve submitted. To really be successful, build your own photography website to be able to showcase your portfolio and start getting higher-paid private corporate work.

MemberPress is a feature-rich plugin that will enable you to turn your WordPress blog into a fully functional membership site. Depending on how you want to run your membership site, you could have a mixture of free and premium membership plans. Premium plans could include no adverts, free downloads, access to extra content, membership forums, and much more. However, it is important to remember that if people are going to pay to view your content then it must be high quality. Otherwise your members won’t renew their subscriptions when the time comes.


Okay. I know. This isn’t an easy one to implement. Creating a successful smartphone app today, in a field littered with apps, is monumentally difficult. But it’s not just the app creation that’s hard itself, it’s the marketing of that app. With so many apps vying for peoples attention, and so much money to be made by the sheer volume of the industry, it’s no wonder why competition is tremendous.

Boy, do I love when people cut out the BS and tell it like it is. Thanks Jon! I went into blogging last summer fairly naively, thinking because I was tenacious, a great writer, and a professional marketer that I could run laps around everybody else. Well like most, I’ve been humbled, frustrated, confused, frustrated, perplexed. I’ve tore things apart and put them back together. I’ve cursed aWeber and used four-letter words about WP, not because they were doing anything wrong, but because I couldn’t figure out code and how to make things work as a one woman band. Oh the joys. I’m not giving up. I have my nose to the keyboard and will attend your webinar. Thanks for the frankness.

Thank you very much for this guide on how to make money online! It has been a long journey for me learning to work from home, but every bit of it is worth it! Sometimes its hard to sift through the bad information and the good information. I first started with PaidSocialMediaJobs and after I made my first couple hundred dollars there, I started trying new techniques which lead me to your website! Thanks again and I can’t wait for your future posts!
#3. Almost zero expense to start. You can open your account with Robinhood, for example, and trade stocks for free. Almost zero expense to open an account and zero expense to trade stocks. Of course, you will need some capital to fund your account. I know. You can start with a small capital just to test the waters. Compare that to blogging, affiliate marketing and drop shipping which may require some up-front expense to start, in addition to your capital.
As per paidsurveyupdate.com research, You’ll typically earn $0.50 to $5.00 per survey, and earnings can quickly add up to$300 a month or more if you take a lot of surveys. Earning money takes time and effort, but how much effort is up to you. If you can commit to doing a few surveys a day, you should be able to earn at least $100 a month. Please make sure that the amount varies depending upon your skill, expertise and area you live in.
Great list! Another suggestion would be transcribing. Transcribing really requires very little skill or capital to get started. You can sign up with companies like Elance and Odesk to find jobs OR reach straight out to producers of audio content to see if they need help. With the huge trend in podcasting a great place to start would be by perusing iTunes for podcast shows that may need help turning their audio podcast episodes into text for their website or “show notes.”
Etsy: While Etsy's popularity has declined recently, it's still a great resource for selling handmade items online. No need for complex ecommerce sites or merchant accounts or any sort of automation. The company takes a commission of every sale and charges a small listing fee per item. But many still use Etsy as their primary source of income. The best part is that you can also sell digital products on here such as poster designs. 
It’s not the sort of online money making opportunity that’s covered in glory, but everyone needs a set of eyes to make sure the numbers add up at the end of the year. Every business and most individuals need someone to help prepare tax returns, especially time or resource-strapped small business owners. The Income Tax School provides an array of training programs that'll certify you with tax prep in as little as 10 weeks, and once tax season rolls around you'll be able to charge an average of $229 per return as a freelance tax preparer with this side business idea, reports CNBC.

Most people who want to make money on the side pick generic services that have lots of competition — general writing, fitness training, and computer repair for instance — then wonder why nobody notices them or buys from them. Meanwhile, other businesses are super-specific and deeply understand their clients and their problems. And they never have to worry about competition or lowering their prices.
Starting a site like youtube isn’t difficult thing at all. There are ample of templates and scripts which are available on your market to get you started. All you need is a domain, good hosting, wordpress theme, script and some nice content to get started. One thing i like about this type of site is that the content is automatically uploaded and created by users and you earn money online from home while sleeping. 

I’m not sitting here and telling you it’s going to be easy though. It’s going to be downright difficult. At times, you might kick and scream in frustration, wondering when it’s ever going to happen. The difference between those that succeed with any type endeavor online and those that fail, are the ones that have cloud-nine dreams of lightning-fast internet riches. That might be because of all these supposed experts out there who tout these overnight systems, or it might just be our general desire for instant gratification.

Once you understand how everything works, and your expectations are set the right way, decide what you want to do. Do you want to become an affiliate marketer? Do you want to be a network marketer? Do you want to become a blogger and sell your own products? Squeeze pages, which are glorified sales pages that attract people and direct their attention towards a single action of providing their email address, are created in a variety of methods. The better they are, the more likely they'll convert. 

However, if you're like the hundreds of millions of other individuals that are looking to become the next David Sharpe, there are some steps that you need to take. In my call with this renowned online marketer, I dove deep the a conversation that was submerged in the field of internet marketing, and worked to really understand what it takes to be top earner. We're not just talking about making a few hundred or thousand dollars to squeak by here; we're talking about building an automated cash machine. It's not easy by any means.
WOW, this post sums up exactly how I’ve been feeling lately. Being about 1 year into the internet marketing game I have found that time is definitely a critical asset. What you save in money will definitely cost you in time AND in order to succeed there is a certain number of hours required in preparation. No shortcuts! I could “amen” this post all day.
If you are not convinced yet then let me tell you that Freelancing is an emerging money-making trend. It could be a job if you take it as a part-time job, and once you’re up for a challenge, you might accept it as a full-time living. According to an estimate, there are 53 million Americans are freelancers and it will likely to grow as it is 34% of the overall workforce, which is expected to reach 50% by 2020.
That type of earth-shattering failure and pain really does a number on a person. Getting clean and overcoming those demons isn't as simple as people make it out to be. You need to have some serious deep-down reasons on why you must succeed at all costs. You have to be able to extricate yourself from the shackles of bad habits that have consumed you during your entire life. And that's precisely what Sharpe did.
This is a fantastic article and it really has given me help. I want to go to this thing in the summer called Creation Fest and it has music and speackers to celebrate God and it costs a lot! I was looking for help and I found this. $100+ seems easy at first but then your stuck when your my age. Thanks a whole bunch and I will probably come back again.
Why am I telling you all of this? The answer is pretty simple. I want you to get the understanding that making money online (at least in the initial stages), takes A LOT of STUDY and WORK! That's the unknown secret of Internet Marketing Gurus. Anyone can make a few hundred dollars. To be quite honest, you can make a few hundred dollars in your FIRST MONTH as a Freebie Trader. To be even MORE honest, it's much harder to profit $2,000+ each and every month, which is the reason I built this blog, and so many other people have their blogs on Internet Marketing – To save you the struggles that we had in getting going.
On a related note, during my research I came across this great post over at Budget Blonde called The Truth About Side Hustling, which I thought was fantastic. I especially loved point #4 – you’re the only one who can force yourself to get started. For a long time, I thought there just weren’t any side hustles I could succeed at, and this past month I’ve realized that is definitely not true. Even more, researching this list led me to a new one scheme that I’m cooking up right now – so hopefully I’ll have some updates on that in a few weeks too.
MemberPress is a feature-rich plugin that will enable you to turn your WordPress blog into a fully functional membership site. Depending on how you want to run your membership site, you could have a mixture of free and premium membership plans. Premium plans could include no adverts, free downloads, access to extra content, membership forums, and much more. However, it is important to remember that if people are going to pay to view your content then it must be high quality. Otherwise your members won’t renew their subscriptions when the time comes.
I think you nailed it here. Excellent post. I’ve found that once you get the puzzle pieces somewhat worked out, you still waste a lot of time reinventing the wheel. I’ve made it my life’s goal to get better at re-using scripts, re-using pages, and to develop other more repeatable processes. That’s one of the biggest challenges I have today. Once that’s solved, then it’s time for more traffic generation and relationship-building! Thanks for the great post.
I’m pretty sure you’re either the only one or one of only 2 people I know of who recommend making a blog whole-life with the intent to profit. Mostly I see direction to split things off and not confuse the audience, or risk losing some of them by having both (for example) health & fitness posts and Arduino programming posts, or mixing blacksmithing with cooking. But between this and the Being Yourself article, I’m starting to see the wisdom of presenting a whole person. It’s just more interesting and feels like more of a relationship with the reader.
A great example of this is the website:  flexsealspraycan.com.  Keep in mind, this is a niche website that’s hyper focused on one product: Flex Seal.  The money maker here is that for every sale they make, they get a split percentage from the sale.  This varies with each affiliate company but it can range from $8-$12 per sale depending on volume.  So you see, you can focus on several products at a time or one as with this example.
Ready to enter the ecommerce fray? Why not sell your own stuff. Of course, along with selling your own stuff on your own website comes a whole slew of both responsibilities and technical configuration and requirements. For starters, you'll need a website and a hosting account. You'll also need a merchant account (sure you can use Stripe or PayPal). Then you'll need to design that site, build a sales funnel, create a lead magnet and do some email marketing.
Twitter has been really helpful. There is a guy who messages me on Twitter and I type back, “Snap, snap.” That signals him to send me $500. That generally happens every week. Guys send me money after they read a posting on my website. I don’t even have to do anything. But others are so needy. They send 10 emails a day, wanting to know how I am doing, telling me that they want to smell my feet and send me money. These are grown men! I feel like I am babysitting. I have others camming (at a cost of $10 per minute, before sending additional money) and talking to me in baby talk. I think they’re shit and treat them like shit. So it’s all very honest.
Forums are a great source of Discussion. People visit them, participate and learn from each other. Most of the people when they do start searching on How to Get Paid Online, they are often recommended this way to earning additional income. There are several forums who pay you for participating in different forums. Additionally there are even companies out there who pay you while participating in forums, provided you add their URL in your signature profile.
If you’ve got experience and expertise in a specific area of business, there are hundreds if not thousands of business owners who would love to jump on a phone call and pick your brain. This can be an easy way to make extra money online and to hone your skills to use in your consulting or freelance business. Sites like Clarity.fm let you create a profile where entrepreneurs and business owners can pre-pay to book a phone call with you for a set amount of time. Whether you’re an expert in raising money for startups, building apps, or running a restaurant, you can make extra money selling a few minutes of your time to people in need.
Yet another Amazon service providing the possibility to make money online is the Audiobook Creation Exchange. You can create a standalone audiobook, or create an audio version of your eBook as complementary media. And you can narrate your audiobook yourself, or Amazon can put you in contact with a professional to help. Once sold, you can then earn up to 40% royalties per audiobook.
Let me admit that there have been some sort of scamming and in past some companies didn’t pay to their users and it’s happen everywhere, even in offline jobs as well, however the companies i have listed above are old, popular and well known for paying to the customers. If you want to work with a specific company, do comment and I will investigate if the company is real or scam.

Andy Jenkins is a famous American internet marketer who has made a name in the world of video marketing, ecommerce, blogging and advertising. He graduated with a degree in visual arts, which helped him to acquire great video editing skills. His talent was not left unnoticed because shortly after, he won an Emmy award for best in video editing for a video that he had created. He is not just an internet and marketing guru, he is also a writer / copywriter, and he also creates and edits non marketing related videos on the side. Jenkins featured other SEO gurus famous such as Dan Theis and Jerry West in order to gain more members.

However, if you're like the hundreds of millions of other individuals that are looking to become the next David Sharpe, there are some steps that you need to take. In my call with this renowned online marketer, I dove deep the a conversation that was submerged in the field of internet marketing, and worked to really understand what it takes to be top earner. We're not just talking about making a few hundred or thousand dollars to squeak by here; we're talking about building an automated cash machine. It's not easy by any means.
If you have a penchant for design or are familiar with blog/website set up, then this is a service that you can create and market to others.  This involves creating logos, social media icons, headers and other design elements of a website.  I like to refer to this as fairy blog mother services for newbie bloggers who don’t have a clue around how to set up a properly structured blog.  I’ve done this often for new bloggers wanting to set up a website but who have no clue about where to get started.
Writing an eBook and selling it on your blog can be a great money maker. Your eBook should be directly relevant to your blog’s content so you can sell your book to your existing audience. Creating a recipe eBook for a food blog or an eBook full of training plans to complement your fitness site are just a couple of examples that have the potential to sell.
I used to have fun doing surveys while I watched TV. I was choosy about the companies I used and I never paid to sign up for any. I got about $25 in free BlockBuster movie coupons, cashed out about $25 from another site and did an in house project trial where a company sent me to full size body lotions to use and record information about. I had fun, felt like my input was improving the business world, but I wasn’t looking to get rich quick, just earn a little bit in time that typically wasted. Some survey companies pay very little, others pay better. Of course, it is not fair to the businesses conducting the research to lie in order to qualify for a survey and they certainly deserve honest and thoughtful answers to their questions. The companies I worked with told me how much the survey would pay and how long it would it would take. Research for the reputable companies.
The field is replete with terms that might confuse and perplex the average individual. What is a squeeze page? What's a sales funnel? What's a CPA? What's SEO? How do you setup a good blog to filter the right type of relevant traffic and get your offer in front of eligible users? What's a massive value post (MVP) really mean? Clearly, there are an endless array of terms, some of which you might already know or might not depending on how much you presently know about the field.
If you have a great voice, you can make decent money by doing Voice Over at Fiverr.com. You can record Voice Overs in English with American, British, Australian, Canadian or New Zealand accent. Or record it in German, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, French, Italian and in many, many languages. Sign up with Fiverr.com. Once you get the order, you can turn around and quickly record at the nearest studio or simply record it on your own computer if it’s clear.
Writing copy for websites is another great freelancing option for those who have a way with words. Copywriting can involve writing the text for websites, press releases, promotional offline materials including leaflets and brochures, and any other professional text for businesses. Writing copy can be better paid than blog writing. However, clients can be more fussy, as they want the highest quality writing for the forefront of their website or advertising campaigns. Many freelance writers offer both copywriting and blog writing amongst their services. This can be a good way to juggle regular but lower paid clients (blogging) with the higher paid but ad-hoc project based copy work.
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